Become a Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA) – Education, Licensure & Salary

“The most surprising aspect of our profession is that nurse anesthetists, or CRNAs, administer about 80 percent of anesthetics in the country, contrary to the common assumption that anesthesiologists are primarily responsible. This underscores not only the pivotal role CRNAs play but also highlights the rapid growth and significant demand within the nursing sector, especially in anesthesia.” 

Mary Holt, DNAP, CRNA

Certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) are a vital part of the healthcare system. They are highly trained and experienced nurse anesthetists who provide anesthesia and pain management services to patients of all ages. The American Association of Nurse Anesthesiology estimates that over 50 million patients receive care from CRNAs annually. In rural communities, up to 80 percent of the anesthesia providers are CRNAs. 

CRNAs can work independently and often work with other healthcare providers to ensure that patients receive the best possible care in various settings, including hospitals, surgery centers, and doctor’s offices. 

A career as a CRNA can be very rewarding. CRNAs are responsible for administering anesthesia and providing care before, during, and after surgical, therapeutic, diagnostic, and obstetrical procedures. They can also provide pain management and some emergency services. Becoming a nurse anesthetist requires a significant amount of education, including an undergraduate degree in nursing and a graduate degree in nurse anesthesia. Most nurses complete a master of science in nursing (MSN) or a doctor of nursing practice (DNP) degree in nurse anesthesia. However, if they already hold a master’s in another field, they can complete a post-master’s certificate. 

Once the necessary education is completed, aspiring CRNAs will need to sit for the National Board of Certification and Recertification for Nurse Anesthetists (NBCRNA) and apply for a license from their state’s nursing board to have the authorization necessary to practice. Certification details and a state-by-state licensing guide can be found below.  

Job prospects for nurse anesthetists are expected to be excellent in the coming years, with employment growth of 9 percent from 2022 to 2032, according to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Nurse anesthetists are among the highest-paid nurse practitioners, with an average annual salary of $212,200, according to the BLS (May 2023).

If you are interested in becoming a nurse anesthetist, use the guide below to help you discover the necessary steps, licensure requirements by state, and daily job duties.

Meet the Expert: Mary Holt, DNAP, CRNA

Dr. Mary Holt is a dedicated and skilled certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) with a doctor of nurse anesthesia practice (DNAP) degree. 

With active CRNA licensure in both Oregon and Washington, Dr. Holt delivers exceptional perioperative anesthesia services to surgical and obstetric patients during critcal procedures. She has a comprehensive background in trauma and surgical care and is currently employed at Northwest Permanente in Portland, Oregon. What is something that many people don’t know about the nurse anesthetist profession?

Dr. Holt: The most surprising aspect of our profession is that nurse anesthetists, or CRNAs, administer about 80 percent of anesthetics in the country, contrary to the common assumption that anesthesiologists are primarily responsible. This underscores not only the pivotal role CRNAs play but also highlights the rapid growth and significant demand within the nursing sector, especially in anesthesia. It’s exciting to be part of such a crucial yet often underestimated community. What is one piece of advice you would give to a nurse anesthetist who is starting out?

Dr. Holt: Finding a supportive group is crucial, especially for new nurse anesthetists transitioning from school to practice, where the learning curve is steep. It’s vital to have mentors or colleagues to consult for advice or answers to questions that arise beyond training. In my first year-and-a-half out of school, I’ve learned immensely, more than in any classroom setting. My advice? Even if you feel prepared to work independently or in a small group, maintain contacts from training or trusted individuals you can turn to for guidance.

For aspiring nurse anesthetists working in the ICU and considering CRNA school, the journey may seem daunting with additional coursework, GREs, and gaining more experience. However, if becoming a CRNA is truly important to you, I encourage you to persevere. Despite the challenging path to anesthesia, the rewarding nature of the profession makes it all worthwhile for those genuinely inspired by the role.

How to Become a Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA)

Step 1: Complete High School Or Equivalent (Four Years)

Completing high school or earning a GED is the first step toward becoming a CRNA. This base level of education is required for additional nursing studies and demonstrates a student’s ability to complete an educational program. Students should focus on science, math, and psychology classes to help prepare them for the next step. 

Step 2: Attend A Nursing Program At An Accredited School (Two to Four Years)

All CRNAs are nurses first. To become a nurse, a student must complete an associate of science in nursing (ASN) or a bachelor of science in nursing (BSN). These general nursing education programs teach all the base skills required to provide quality patient care. Students will take didactic courses alongside clinical rotations to gain hands-on skills as a nurse. 

Step 3: Pass the National Council Licensure Examination Practical Nurse Exam (NCLEX-RN) (Timeline Varies) 

After graduating from an accredited nursing program, students are eligible to sit for the National Council Licensure Examination Practical Nurse Exam (NCLEX-RN). This comprehensive exam evaluates a candidate’s readiness for entry-level work as a nurse.   

Step 4: Obtain Entry-Level Work Experience (Timeline Varies) 

Most CRNA programs require applicants to have at least one to two years of work experience in a critical care setting to be considered for admission. This entry-level work provides nurses with the skills they will need to complete additional studies and helps determine their suitability for this line of work. 

Step 5: Complete a Graduate Nursing Degree (Two to Four Years)

With an undergraduate degree, a current RN license, and a few years of work experience, a nurse will be ready to apply for a graduate degree in nurse anesthesia. To become a CRNA, an RN must earn either a master’s of science in nursing (MSN) or a doctor of nursing practice (DNP) degree.

Alternatively, if an RN holds a master’s degree in another field, they can complete a post-master’s certificate. Students in the program learn about the various types of anesthesia, how to administer anesthesia safely, and how to monitor patients during surgery. They will also cover the pharmacology of anesthesia drugs, the physiology of the human body, pain management, and postoperative care.

Step 6: Obtain Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA) National Certification (Timeline Varies) 

To demonstrate a high level of competency in this field, aspiring CRNAs can earn certification through the National Board of Certification and Recertification for Nurse Anesthetists (NBCRNA). Requirements for this certification include holding a current RN license, completing an accredited nurse anesthesia educational program, and passing the NBCRNA certifying examination. 

Step 7: Meet The Requirements For State Licensing (Timeline Varies) 

A license as a CRNA or advanced practice nurse practitioner (APRN) is required to practice. Requirements will vary by state. See the state-by-state guide below to learn about the necessary qualifications in each jurisdiction.

What Does a Nurse Anesthetist Do?

CRNAs typically work in hospital settings but may also find employment in other healthcare facilities such as pain clinics, ambulatory surgery centers, and long-term care facilities. In addition to traditional medical settings, CRNAs may also find work with the military, government agencies, or research organizations. The specific duties of a CRNA depend on the employer but generally involve:

  • Monitoring patient’s vital signs
  • Administering general and local anesthesia
  • Adjusting anesthesia as necessary during treatment
  • Discussing medications and allergies with patients
  • Reassuring concerned patients
  • Providing pain management
  • Offering emergency services
  • Maintaining patient records

How Much Do Nurse Anesthetists Make?

The 43,950 CRNas across the US earn $214,200 per year on average (BLS May 2023). The percentiles for wages were:

  • 10th percentile: $139,980
  • 25th percentile: $180,840
  • 50th percentile (median): $212,650
  • 75th percentile: $>$239,200 per year
  • 90th percentile: $>$239,200 per year

Please note that the BLS does not give specific figures for ranges in excess of $239,200.

Nurse Anesthetist Certifications

To ensure CRNAs have the skills and knowledge necessary to practice they must obtain certification from the National Board of Certification and Recertification for Nurse Anesthetists (NBCRNA). The eligibility requirements to sit the National Certification Examination (NCE) include:

  • Complete a nurse anesthesia educational program accredited by the Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia Educational Programs (COA) within the past two years
  • Hold an active and unencumbered RN license

Candidates will need to submit a completed application along with documentation of eligibility to be approved to sit for the exam. The feed for the exam is $995. 

Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA) Licensure Requirements By State

State Licensing Authority Eligibility & Details Renewal Requirements

Virginia Board of Nursing

In Virginia, CRNAs practice as a category of a certified nurse practitioner (CNP) license. To be eligible for an CNP license in Virginia, the following is required:

  • Evidence of a current Virginia RN license or RN license with multi-state privilege
  • Complete online application and fee of $125 through online license portal
  • Verification of professional certification for the specialty area of educational preparation issued by the National Board of Certification and Recertification for Nurse Anesthetists
  • Submit official transcript from a graduate degree program in nursing designed to advanced practice registered nurses, sent directly from the education institution

License renewals for CNPs in Virginia are required biennially. The renewal fee is $80, and CNPs must either have a current national certification or complete 40 hours of continuing education.

Kimmy Gustafson

Kimmy Gustafson


Thanks to her experience writing in healthcare, Kimmy Gustafson has delivered in-depth articles on timely topics for since 2022. Her aim is to assist both students and professionals in navigating the intricate process of selecting a nursing program and understanding the ever-evolving realm of nursing education.

Kimmy has been a freelance writer for more than a decade, writing hundreds of articles on a wide variety of topics such as startups, nonprofits, healthcare, kiteboarding, the outdoors, and higher education. She is passionate about seeing the world and has traveled to over 27 countries. She holds a bachelor’s degree in journalism from the University of Oregon. When not working, she can be found outdoors, parenting, kiteboarding, or cooking.

Rachel Drummond, MEd

Rachel Drummond, MEd


At, Rachel Drummond has applied her extensive experience in education and mindfulness to elucidate the importance of self-care for nursing students since 2022. Through her writings, she underscores the role of mental and physical well-being in fostering resilient and compassionate healthcare professionals.

Rachel is a writer, educator, and coach from Oregon. She has a master’s degree in education (MEd) and has over 15 years of experience teaching English, public speaking, and mindfulness to international audiences in the United States, Japan, and Spain. She writes about the mind-body benefits of contemplative movement practices like yoga on her blog, inviting people to prioritize their unique version of well-being and empowering everyone to live healthier and more balanced lives.